Baking Stutenkerl, also known as Weckmann, Baselmann and Nikolaus, had been a tradition for centuries during Advent and later became a symbol of St. Martins Day. Made from a sweet yeast dough formed by hand into the shape of a plump, approx. five inch (12 cm) tall, "bread man", Weckmaenner often have eyes and a mouth made with raisins, buttons made from raisins, slices of almonds or dried cranberries, and, although sometimes the figures are miniature works of art, they are usually more like a simple rather chubby gingerbread man.
A custom that began in the early days of the Christian church when blessed but not consecrated bread was given to those who did not, or could not, take part in Eucharist, over time it became known as 'image bread', Gebildbrot, because the dough was made into a shape that fitted to the holiday or celebration.
In Germany the Bread Man first became a popular treat just during the festive season, and it was called a Nikolaus for St. Nicholas Day on December 6, but the tradition now begins on November 11th, for St. Martin's Day.
Throughout German speaking and other countries that celebrate Sankt Martinstag and St. Nikolaus Day, Weckmaenner are to be found in all bakeries, while home baking the traditional bread men is a fun way for children to pass some of their school free hours. After that although they are sometimes seen during Advent they basically disappear until the next St. Martin's Day.
Any sweet yeast dough can be used, but this is one of the many original and authentic German recipes.
A WECKMANN AND NIKOLAUS RECIPE Quantities for 10 Weckmaenner or Nikolause.
1 Cup Milk
1/2 cup butter
1 cup sugar
3 tablespoons pure vanilla extract
Grated peel from 1 lemon
1/2 oz (One package or 2.1/4 teaspoons) rapid yeast
3 tablespoons warm, not hot, water
6.2/3 cups flour
1 well beaten egg yolk for glazing
Raisins and pieces of nut for decoration
Mix yeast together with 1 tablespoon sugar and the warm water
In a saucepan heat gently milk, butter and sugar, leave to cool
Add the flour to a large bowl and after making a hole in the center pour in the blended yeast, gently mix together, cover and allow to rise for about 20 minutes
Add milk and butter mixture to flour, mix thoroughly, knead into until well combined and smooth, roll into ball, sprinkle with flour and leave to rise for 45 minutes.
Flatten out dough, divide into 10 pieces. There are special baking forms, but the majority of "Weckmann bakers" still enjoy shaping the rounded bread man by hand.
Place the Weckmaenner on greased or baking paper covered baking tray, allowing enough space in-between each one to allow for spreading and leave to rise for another 20 to 45 minutes.
Brush with beaten egg yolk, and add raisins, (it is a good idea to soak them in water for a few minutes before hand so they don't harden or burn), for the eyes and down the body section for 'buttons' use three or four raisins or pieces of nut.
Place in a preheated oven and bake at 325 to 350 degrees F for 10 to 15 minutes until golden brown.
A German Weckmann either carries a small clay pipe or has one in his mouth, however the figure was first meant to represent a Bishop,which why in English it is sometimes known as 'Bishop's Bread', but it seems that sometime in the past the bishop holding a crosier in his hand became instead a "bread man" form with a pipe. This, if turned upside down, does look like a bishops staff.
Nevertheless, as small clay pipes are hard to find, this is a recipe for a non-smoking Weckmann.
This Ateco Ginger Bread Man Cookie Cutter makes an easy job of great St. Martin's Day or St. Nicholas Weckmann. He is about the right height and has a fun shape that can be 'rounded' out to give him an authentic 'belly'.
Germans enjoy hundred of different types of bread, from Rye to Sweet, and made into almost as many different shapes and sizes. This is a great 'Bread dough' cook book, a 'Cookbook Winner of the Year', written by a Frenchman and with easy recipes for many of the types of bread available in Germany
An unbaked and a baked Yeast Bread Man with pipe - photographer Micha L. Rieser, courtesy de.Wikipedia
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