For some people, the phrase healthful diet is enough to send their mood tumbling. "Guess I'll have to give up everything I enjoy, like chocolate and hamburgers and french fries," sighed one patient. "That's enough to make me even more depressed!" But healthful need not be equated with unappetizing or boring. Different, perhaps, and for some people a change to a more healthful diet requires big adjustments -- in the foods they buy, where they eat out, and how they prepare their choices. The rewards, however, are many, including improved mood, more energy, enhanced immune system, better concentration, to name but a few.
I've found that laying down a few basic but critical guidelines for a healthful diet, and then tweaking them for individual patients, works much better than expecting people to follow a complicated program that involves counting grams of carbohydrates or protein, weighing foods, referring to charts, or combining certain items in complicated ratios. That being said, here are my lists of "Positive Foods" and "Foods to Avoid."
Sweets. In moderation, natural sugars such as rice syrup, date sugar, pure Vermont syrup, unsulfured blackstrap molasses, and unfiltered honey are all acceptable. An herbal sweetener -- that has nearly no calories -- is stevia, which can be found in health food stores and increasingly in mainstream grocery stores.
Fats. Some fats are healthy and instrumental in maintaining mental health, especially omega-3 fatty acids. When you choose oil for cooking, your best choice is probably cold-pressed olive oil. Butter and other saturated fats (like coconut oil, but not margarine that contains transfatty acids) may be used in moderate amounts. I suggest you avoid fried foods (especially deep-fried).
Whole fruits and vegetables. Whenever possible, choose fresh, organic fruits and vegetables and eat at least five to seven servings daily. To derive the most benefit from these rich sources of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and carbohydrates, eat them in as pure a state as possible, preferably raw or lightly steamed. (Sorry, deep-fried potatoes and onion rings don't count as servings of whole vegetables.) Fruit and vegetable juices are good as well, and if you have a juicer, please learn how to make your own fresh juices, remembering to drink the pulp as well!
Whole grains and cereals. Whole grains and cereals (organic if possible) are excellent sources of complex carbohydrates. These foods include whole grains, brown rice, and unprocessed cereals. Complex carbohydrates break down gradually and provide a more steady supply of glucose -- brain fuel -- thus helping maintain an even or calmer mood. Simple carbohydrates, however, such as those found in sugary foods or those made with white flour, metabolize rapidly, contributing to and causing mood swings and energy highs and lows. Also, be aware that some grains and even other whole-food starches may be problematic for some people.
Beans, legumes, nuts, and seeds. Choose organic foods in this important category as well. Foods in this group are excellent sources of protein, especially for people who want to reduce or eliminate animal protein. Beans, legumes, nuts, and seeds are also high in fiber and many nutrients. Also in this category are tofu and other forms of fermented soybeans (miso, tempeh) and flaxseed.
Eggs and dairy. Eggs and dairy foods -- milk, cheese, butter, cream, and yogurt -- are good sources of protein, calcium, and other important nutrients. They are also rich sources of saturated fat, which may be fine for many people. The major concern I have about eggs and dairy relates to whether hormones were used in raising the animals; whether or not they were given foods containing pesticides, antibiotics, toxic minerals, or other chemicals; and whether the animals were confined to inhumane cages. Soft-boiled eggs are best because heat is applied without exposure to oxygen, thus reducing free radical damage. I recommend organic eggs and dairy products and prefer nonhomogenized milk. Although pasteurization of milk products is the norm today in order to eliminate harmful bacteria, certified raw milk is preferred in areas where it is available, provided the cows are clean and hygienic principles are used in caring for them. If you are lactose-intolerant because of a deficiency of the enzyme lactase, or you choose not to consume dairy items, nondairy foods may be used. These include products made from soy, rice, or nuts, such as soy milk, rice milk, and almond milk; cheese made from these "milks"; and nondairy desserts. These "dairy" foods are also good sources of protein.
Organic meats and poultry. Despite a push for people to eat more fish, meat and poultry continue to be major sources of animal protein for many people. For patients who eat meat, I recommend organically raised products, which are virtually free of hormones, pesticides, antibiotics, and other unnatural additives, all of which can have a detrimental effect on mood and general health. Such meat and poultry choices are slowly becoming more accessible and typically are available in natural and whole-food stores. Meats and poultry are sources of methionine, which is critical for methylation; this amino acid is difficult to get from plant-based sources.
Fish and shellfish. Fish and shellfish can be excellent sources of protein and omega-3 fatty acids, if you make judicious choices. I'm calling for "judicious choices" because of the persistent and very real problem of mercury, pesticides, PCBs, and other contamination of the fish supply. Fish that I tend to recommend that are high in omega-3 fatty acids, but relatively low in mercury, are wild Alaskan salmon and sardines. I am wary about farm-raised fish because some studies indicate that they are high in PCBs and other contaminants. The smaller the fish (say, sardines), the less likely they are to accumulate mercury. But if you eat fish fairly frequently, I recommend that you have your blood mercury levels checked, because there is no way to guarantee the fish you eat regularly is not contaminated. Everyone whom I have checked for mercury who eats sushi more than once a week is quite high in it. Swordfish, king mackerel, shark, and most tuna tend to be quite high in mercury.
From the book WHAT YOUR DOCTOR MAY NOT TELL YOU ABOUT DEPRESSION: Basics of a Healthful, Antidepression Diet (Positive Foods)
Copyright (c) 2006 by Michael B. Schachter, MD, and Lynn Sonberg. Reprinted by permission of Warner Books, Inc, New York, NY. All rights reserved.
Antidepression Diet "Foods to Avoid"