There is so much to learn about China and Chinese culture, but, like every other topic, you have to learn the basics first in order to understand the more in-depth information. Here is some basic information about China to get you acquainted.
Name(s): China, Peoples Republic of China (since 1949), Republic of China (1911 present day, relocated from Mainland China to Taiwan), Zhongguo
Land Area: Approximately 3.6 million square miles (making China the 3rd largest country in the world, in close running with the US.)
Population: 1.3 billion, with Han Chinese accounting for 92% of that number while approximately 6-7% of the remaining population consists of 55 officially-recognized minority groups. Other minority groups exist in China but these groups are not recognized by the government of China. China is the most populated country in the world, followed by India.
Capital City: Beijing
National Symbols: Peonies and Plum Blossoms (unofficial national flowers), phesants and cranes (national birds), Tianenmen Square, The Great Wall of China, the Yangtze River, Forbidden Palace, and many more.
Government: Communist Party of China (since 1949), Nationalist Party of China (1911-1948), Dynasties (2200 B.C. to 1911 A.D)
Economy: Over 3 trillion GDP yearly; the 4th largest economy in the world.
Official Language: Putonghua (Mandarin), spoken by approximately 70% of the population in China.
Other Languages/Dialects: Yue (Cantonese), Wu, Min, Xiang, Hakka (Kejia), and Gan
Provinces: 22 including (listed before capital cities):
Taiwan - Taipei
(Although Hong Kong is considered part of China, it is not a province)