German Carnival...Karneval, Fasching and Fastnacht
"Die närrische Zeit". Carnival in Germany.
"Karneval" along the Rhine, "Fastnacht" in the South West, "Fasching" in Bavaria...just a few of its names. But all have a mixture of parades, balls, masks, Carnival Princes and Princesses.
Although the Carnival in Cologne doesn't have a Princess, instead a "Dreigestirn" the Triumpherate. A "Prince" -His Craziness, a "Peasant", and the "Maiden"...a man in a fetching, and very feminine, medieval outfit.
Germany's Mardi Gras begins November 11 at 11.11 am, with a day of wild celebration before the "behind the scenes" planning for the next carnival starts; including naming the year's Carnival Royal Family. But from New Year's Day, before the Christmas decorations are back in their boxes, and more often from Epiphany, it is officially party time in Carnival Regions.
Nonstop revelry until Ash Wednesday, Ashermittwoch. Then it is Lent and what used to be forty days of fasting and sacrifice leading to Easter.
The Rhineland area of Cologne, Düsseldorf and Aachen, together with Mainz and Munich, hold the largest most colorful processions, while smaller towns and villages also have traditional parades and festivities.
The year's big celebrations start on the Thursday, with Weiberdonnerstag, Women's Thursday, in Rhineland's Karneval, or South West Germany's Fastnacht "Schmutziger Donnerstag" or "Schmotziger Donnerschtig", Greasy Thursday as it is known locally, which are then followed by the "Die Drei Tollen Tage". The Three Crazy Days.
No man wears a favorite tie on Weiberdonnerstag as by tradition women take over and chase men to cut them off, nailing their souvenirs to trophy walls.
As a symbol of "cutting men down to size" it is one of the day's most popular pastimes, so special ties are sold for the occasion, hated ones dragged out of storage, and turtleneck sweaters appear even on the usually conventionally dressed.
It was a sign of the day's general "kicking over the traces", that until quite recently any divorce case brought about because of an incident occurring on Weiberdonnerstag was disallowed by the court.
It might be on the same day but in the south-west Fastnacht "Schmotziger Donnerschtig", called that as it was the day pigs were slaughtered ready to be smoked or prepared for Easter, (similar to Mardi Gras, Fat Tuesday), is celebrated in a completely different way.
No tie cutting here. Instead young children in costume, "Narren" - Jesters, and "Hexen" - Witches, help students escape school; the day's specialty is a type of donut cooked in pork fat, and at sunset it is time for the "Hexensprung". The witches jump.
Making as much noise as they can "Hexen" vault over a bonfire on their brooms. If the year's Fastnacht takes place early in the year, those brooms sweep away any snow as well as the evil spirits of winter.
Although Fastnacht celebrations don't only involve witches wearing hand carved wooden masks vaulting over fires. On Saturday bonfires burn throughout the night, another symbol of the winter months being chased away, and on some of these fires there will be a burning effigy representing Old Man Winter, or a witch.
A return to the pagan roots of a Christian celebration.
Processions start at 11.11 am on Rosenmontag, Rose Monday,
in Cologne, Mainz and Düsseldorf - the Karneval climax and Germany's carnival cities fill with millions of spectators.
In fancy dress, extravagant makeup, hats, masks and false noses, they join in televised kilometer long carnival parades filled with spectacle, enchantment and tradition; with Karneval "Royal Families", Court jesters, costumed marchers, brass bands, drummers, dancers and enormous floats.
Floats are almost works of art. Taking months to make, traditionally they showcase mocking political and social commentaries and caricatures; covering everything from unemployment and scandals to politicians and world leaders.
Cries of "Kamelle, Kamelle", "Candy, Candy", ring through the cheers of the crowd, and revelers on the floats wave and sing German Carnival songs while throwing out candy, chocolate bars, bags of popcorn or chips, small plastic toys, confetti and "Strüßcher. Spring flowers.
Children, and some adults, scoop the flying goodies into large bags brought along for just this purpose.
Carnival in Germany doesn't stop on Rosenmontag, because the suburbs are taken over by carnival celebrations and local parades on Tuesday, and for many this is "real" carnival. Celebrated as it used to be before becoming political.
There the beautifully decorated floats, traditionally dressed marchers, some as devils, witches or with ferocious wooden animal masks, others as contrasting colorful "Spring" spirits, offer a more relaxed atmosphere than the previous day's processions.
Fasching celebrations in Munich are quite different, there are few costumes to be seen but elegant balls, Gala's and sophisticated celebrations. It is more like the Venice Carnival as it leads up to Faschingssonntag or Fools Sunday, when the street festivities take off and for three days the inner city becomes a party zone. Filled with bands, dancing, singing, fancy dress, general riotous behavior and the Faschingsumzug, Carnival parade.
On Shrove Tuesday, Faschingsdienstag, a high point of the non-stop festivities is a traditional, and cult, dance by Munich's Market Women from the century's old Viktualienmarkt. The city's huge open air food market.
Karneval ends at midnight and Lent begins.
Many Germans, even those not especially religious, will follow the custom of giving up something. From that night time glass of wine to computer games or television viewing.
Karneval, from "carne vale" Latin for "Farewell to Meat", or perhaps from the Latin "carrus navalis" "Ship of Fools", Fastnacht - "Fasting Eve" the night before Lent, or Fasching, "last drink (alcoholic) before fasting", is over for the year.
On Ash Wednesday, Ashermittwoch, the fast can begin, perhaps with a traditional fish dish.
This is Germany though, a country famous for its beers, so it is no surprise Lent brings with it a two week "Strong Beer Season". A nutritious mixture brewed for centuries by German monks to fortify them when weakened from fasting, and now enjoyed, and appreciated, not only by those living in monasteries but also who visit bars and shop at supermarkets.
Illustrations: Karneval Jecken tel-aviv.diplo.de...Necktie cutting via DW.com...Hexensprung in Offenburg, photographer Peter Heck via Badische Zeitung...Da fliegen die Kamelle: Cologne's Prince, Peasant and Maiden throwing Kamelle via Kamelle.de...Tanz Viktualienmarkt via TZ
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