Norwegian - Think Fair Isle, but slightly different.
One skein - Projects that require only one skein of yarn. They make great fast projects, and are a great use of luxury yarns.
Public - Knitting that can be done in public often without thinking. Once you return home it will not require a lot of ripping back to figure out where you went wrong.
Sock - Some people only knit socks, hard to believe, but there you have it. Socks can be made with four or five double pointed needles, or with one very long circular needle, or even two circulars. In addition, you can make them one at a time or simultaneously. One of the coolest knitting things I have ever seen is someone knitting socks two at a time, one inside the other! There is a Youtube video here, Two at a time socks
Trial and error -Often when you aren't sure what to do with a given yarn you start to swatch to see what works best for the yarn, how it drapes, should it be knit tightly, will it hold up for socks, would it best in a scarf, so therefore this is trial and error knitting, you just knit for the pleasure of discovering the yarn.
Zen -This is knitting that you can do while letting your mind wander, it depends on the knitter what the knitting is to become.
And a couple of knitting styles:
Continental - This is when the knitter carries the yarn in their left hand and picks the yarn to pull it through the left hand needle loops.
English - The knitter carries the yarn in their right hand and throws the yarn over the right needle, to be pulled through the stitch on the left needle.
Combination - Here is a video from knitting help that shows it best.
There are a lot of definitions I'm sure I missed, if you want any others join us in the forum and we'll see about finding the answers.