20th Century Wars Economical Affect on Europe
Economically, wars were especially hard on the twentieth century. World War I hit the world hard. Debt was accumulated by all European countries to pay for the war “either from their own citizens or from foreign lenders.”
20th Century Wars Political Affect on Europe
Eras of history do not stand alone. One event can drastically affect another even when generations separate them. The twentieth century was shaped by the wars that were fought during that period.
20th Century Wars Societal Affect on Europe
The wars of the 20th century also impacted Western society. World War I upheaved society in a manner that many had trouble accepting.
Abacination - Torture Methods in History
History is fully of examples of torture used for political, religious, and personal reasons. It is meant to inflict pain and terror. There are hundreds of ways a person can be tortured with each one of them highly effective. One method of torture used in history was abacination.
Armenian Genocide and Turkish Denial
The first act of genocide in the twentieth century is one that is still hotly debated today: Turkey’s genocide of the Armenian people. By denying the genocidal actions on Armenians in 1915, Turkey leaves no room for closure on one of the twentieth century’s biggest black spots.
Auschwitz was a place designed by the Nazis to bring about the Final Solution. Though it was a place to extract all the Nazis could from the prisoners, it was also a world of its own trying to survive.
Bismarck's Impact on Europe
The two greatest events in term of magnitude in Germany and in Europe in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries revolved around the ideas and actions of two men: Otto von Bismarck and Adolf Hitler.
Bismark and Hitler
Bismarck’s flaw in unification was the fact that his plan was too extensive. Hitler did not learn from this lesson as he kept moving forward against Europe and continue to construct and eliminate treaties.
Burschenschaft - Old German Secret Societies
Many secret societies begin with the young and those in universities. One group in Germany that rose up to create a united Germany was the Burschenschaft. They were the driving force of the 1848 Revolution.
Carbonari - A Society for Government Overthrows
When one thinks of secret societies, they think of power and clandestine meetings with evil purpose. Many of these societies others are secret because they admit they are trying to overthrow the government. The Carbonari was such a group.
Charlemagne as Germanic King and Roman Emperor
Charlemagne was a ruler that has left his mark on the annals of history. In reality, Charlemagne was not just a Germanic king or a Roman Emperor. He was the perfect combination of both.
Christianity's Contribution to the Fall of Rome
The great Roman Empire was large and intricate. As Christianity grew, church officials taking over the administration of areas of the Empire helped to cripple the awe-inspiring civilization and took Christianity from a matter of the soul to that of running nations.
Church and State in the Middle Ages
St. Augustine saw the church and the state as separate entities though they influenced each other greatly. Augustine saw the entities as separate and not one.
Death Becoming Intentional Toward the Holocaust
Purpose in death could be seen as far back as the Spartans of Ancient Greece and helped lay the groundwork for the Holocaust
Denial that the Holocaust Could Occur
Those that believe the Holocaust to be an anomaly are the reason that the Holocaust was possible and has been and will be recreated. Their denial of the depths of man’s depravity gives all those that perpetuate these acts an open door with full access to implement genocide.
England's German Monarchial Roots
The Germanic monarchial roots can be described as a leader who was supported by the people and who worked with other leaders, chiefs, to help the country through the difficult times. One of the medieval monarchies that evolved from this Germanic format was the English monarchy.
England's Glorious Revolution Example
The Glorious Revolution of 1688 would set the precedent for the American Revolution that would occur less than a century later. It would be England that would lay the groundwork for the colonists’ revolt.
Foundations for the Holocaust
How the Holocaust could happen is something that has been pondered for decades by many throughout the world. Blame has been placed on the Nazis, Christians, and all non-Jews. The reason the Holocaust was possible arises from the depths of man’s thirst for blood and the need for superiority.
France and Russia Reactions to Enlightenment
There were many differences between the various sections of Europe in how they developed internally.
France's Reaction to Revolutions and Change
During the 19th century, France and Russia were two of the most changing European powers. They had not advanced as far as Britain had in restricting the monarchy and creating a government that was more for the people by the people.
Freemasons - A Famous Secret Society
The Freemasons have captured the conspiracy minded people around the world for hundreds of years. The secret meetings and signs promote rumors and accusations that range from satanic worship to controlling the world powers. Yet, what is the true history of the Freemasons?
Grand Firmament - Alliance of Secret Societies
During times of unrest, revolutionary groups can emerge from every crevice. Rumor has it that the Grand Firmament was the connection between them all and helped guide them though they might be far away.
Great Reforms of Alexander II
During the reign of Alexander II, many reforms were instituted that changed Russia forever. These reforms brought the nation in line with Western Europe and helped the nation find a firmer footing within itself and with the rest of the world. Yet, these reforms did not come without a cost.
Henry II vs. Thomas Becket
Many eyes throughout history have zoomed in on the conflict between the English king, Henry II, and the archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket. Most observers are unaware of this conflict was the reflection of what was happening in mainland Europe between the Church and the State.
Hitler's Impact on Europe
Adolf Hitler rose to power after a bitter defeat in World War I. Germany felt slighted and oppressed by the winning nations. The people yearned to feel pride again. Unlike Bismarck, Hitler rose up with a unified though defeated Germany.
Humanism as the Foundation of the Reformation
When religious scholars began to read the original texts and look back to classical and early church writings, humanism stepped in to help those that were appalled by the actions of the church to bring it back to the format and heart of the original church that could be found in the New Testament.
Humanism Effect on the Rensaissance
Humanism was the single most revolutionary concept the Renaissance gave the world. It touched all aspects of society and lifted mankind up.
Humanism Making Religion Personal Again
As Luther “carried the study of Ovid, Virgil, and Cicero, in particular, farther than was customary with the professed students of Humanism, and the same with the political works of more modern Latin writers”, he began to find the personal side of religion.
Ideologies Influence on French Revolution
The 19th century ideologies were very important and swayed France dramatically. Voltaire has been historically known as “a defender of religious freedom, free trade, civil liberties, [and] social reform.”
Impact of Orthodox Church on Kievan Russia
Orthodox Christianity was present at the right time and place to become the religion of Kievan Russia and change its history.
Industrialization and Imperialism
If industrialization had not developed as it did in Europe, the rush for Africa would not have occurred in the manner it did. The need for resources would not have had France, Britain and other nations competing to get more land and control of more resources if they sudden demand was not there.
Jews as Nazi Scapegoats
Most people blame others for their woes. Such was the situation of the Jews under Nazi Germany. The economy was bad; Germany needed to be proud of something. Who was dragging them down? Their eyes turned to the Jew.
Martin Luther's Humanism Education
To understand Luther and the Protestant Reformation, one has to understand humanism. This Renaissance was a movement that would have man taking control of their own lives and souls: “man was now the creator of his own destiny.”
Medieval Church's View of Medicine
Especially after the Black Death, astrology became a major factor in the field of medicine.
Medieval Medicine and the Roman Empire
Like any profession or area of study, medicine has developed and changed over the years. From the earliest of times, it has involved with a little bit of basic science mixed with a little bit of magic or hope. Medieval times were not any different.
Nazi Use of Ghettos
Under the Nazi regime, ghettos became the home for many Jews. Keeping the Jews in one place, the Nazis were ensuring the location of all Jews in the area and, in the process, helped to increase their chances of death. Ghettos once were a place for life but became a place of death under Nazi rule.
Persecution Toward the Holocaust
Religious persecution continued in Europe with the massacre of the Huguenots of France and anyone who was on the opposite religious side of the current ruler in England. It was in late eighteenth century that focus on a common enemy turned from race or religion. It focused on class.
Renaissance Humanism Effect on Christianity
The Humanistic movement did lessen the hold that religion had over mankind by emphasizing individualism. Religion became more important to people. Ironically, religion lost its hold while gaining fascinating new inroads.
Russia's Reaction to Change
The Russian Empire took the road of stubbornness and isolationism. Russia had monarchs that helped push the nation toward progress in the 18th centuries under Peter the Great and Catherine the Great. Russia was moving forward until it hit the 19th century and conservative monarchs.
Superstition and Medieval Medicine
Science did not have the power that superstition had over Medieval society.
The Beauty of the Silver Age of Russian Culture
The Silver Age of Russia was a revival of the Golden Age of Russian literature that extended beyond the written word and touched every part of Russian culture.
The Beginning of the Reformation in Humanism
The Catholic Church had grown to be the leader in the Christian religion during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Yet, its time in the garden of unquestionable power was to end as a new thought arose. Humanism was a tidal wave that hit Europe.
The Brank - Torture Methods in History
Many torture methods make you cringe. Others can make you sick. Then there are those that almost make you laugh and wish they were used today. Almost…. The Brank is one such device.
The Chivalric Ideal in the First Crusade
As Pope Urban II called for troops to initiate the First Crusade, the chivalric ideal was at the heart of many who stepped forward. What truly happened during the military/religious operation was a mixture of chivalry and madness.
The Church and Medieval Medicine
Modern day society sees medicine as a science to be studied and practiced. The science side of medicine is typically accepted easily. During the Middle Ages, science was not yet defined and accepted readily by the Christian Church which was developing a strong hold over society.
The Cluniac Reforms and St. Augustine
Looking closely at the Cluniac reform and the ideas that St. Augustine promoted, it seems that the reform by the Cluny order was neither a reflection nor a contradiction of St. Augustine.
The Congo as the Falsified Free State
The treatment Africans experienced at the hands of the European powers that looked to the large continent for resources varied across the land though over all suppression was the foundation.
The Defining Concept of the Renaissance
The defining element of the Renaissance was the humanist movement. It was this single concept that affected every area of the Renaissance society and closed the door on the Middle Ages. Humanism was the essence of the Renaissance.
The False Dmitrii Phenomenon
The false Dmitrii’s gave Russia the chance to acquire a purity it had lost through corruption and intrigue.
The Fundamental Effect of the Black Death
When the Black Death reached its climax and swept through Europe, it left no area of society untouched: effects were everywhere including cities, rural areas, every social structure, and religious and non-religious areas. Nothing was protected from the deadly disease that bombed the Middle Ages.
The Hell Fire Club Secret Society of 1700s England
Throughout history, secret societies have captured the public's attention. They have been the basis for many conspiracy theories mainly based on their tight secrecy. One of those secret societies was the Hell Fire Club in England.
The Indifference of Nazi Killers
Any discussion of the Holocaust involves the Germans, specifically the Nazis. The evil that draped these men and women are described in various degrees by all who write and speak of the atrocities they committed. The words Elie Wiesel used to describe them speak louder than any thunder clap ever cou
The Legend of Robin Hood
Everyone knows about Robin Hood and his merry men. What we don’t know who was Robin Hood? Did he really exist? How much is legend and how much is history?
The Nazi Need for Race
The Nazi party had to make race an issue to give themselves the foundation they needed to succeed.
The Possibility of the Holocaust
Take suspicion and toss in arrogance and you have the perfect recipe for the Holocaust and all the steps that led to it.
The Soviet Reason for Agriculture Collectivism
Part of Stalin’s plan was to pull the entire agriculture of the nation into a policy of collectivism. It was a political move to expand power and create more control over the people of the Soviet Union.
The Strength of Peter the Great of Russia
Peter the Great's personality and character was reflected in his rule and the new direction he took the great nation.
The Structure of Auschwitz Society of Death
Life within Auschwitz was extremely regulated. All, that were not ill, left for work in military marching style and returned twelve hours later in the same manner. Specific details were constructed based on the prisoners’ abilities.
The Survival of Rome Through the Middle Ages
The Middle Ages was a time of transition from the idolized Roman Empire to the Renaissance that took society and culture major steps forward. Though not empty of civilization, it was a time that held onto Roman concepts and nurtured them for their time in the Renaissance.
The Truth Behind the Princes in the Tower
This goes back hundreds and hundreds of years to the time the Tudors came to the throne. Edward IV was dying. His son was to become king, but being a minor Edward made his brother Richard protector. All manners of suspicious activities occurred leading to one of the greatest mysteries in history.
Totalitarianism in Italy and Germany
Totalitarianism found the perfect ground to find root in right after World War I ended. Europe had changed. Gone were the romantic ideals of the Victorian age and beyond. Gone were the nations as the world once knew them. There was a loss of security and identity flowing through the nations.
Treatment of Congo Natives
In his book, Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad describes the workers that once claimed the Congo land as their own and explored it as their ancestors had.
Turkey Uses Genocide as Political Blackmail
Turkey’s stance is very strong as they use the word ‘genocide’ as a political bargaining tool. When countries use the term to refer to the ‘deportation’ period of the Armenians, Turkish representatives declare that relations between Turkey and those that view the acts as genocide will be damaged.
Turkish Denial of Genocide is Black Spot
Turkey’s reaction to the events and the world’s reaction have made many question the integrity and honor of the modern nation.
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War had been shown in literature and art as being glorious and something that would be honored. World War I changed everyone when the reality of death and war came to be. It was no longer glorious.
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