Beginning civilizations and how they flurished or demised.
An Empire Created by Augustus
Overall, Augustus was the stabilizing factor in moving the state from the Republic that had collapsed to the Empire that would so greatly influence the world. He organized the government and gave Roman society much of the characteristics that we know about it today.
The legend of Troy has intrigued people for hundreds of years. Did this city really exist?
Are Homer's Works Historical?
Homer wrote two of the greatest epics that have lasted for centuries. The Iliad and the Odyssey have given us the most wonderful stories and the most human of characters. But are these fanciful stories just stories to tell children before the midnight fire? Or are these stories founded in history?
The extraordinary work that came out of Classical Greece was the result of the Athenians trying to find escape, peace, and an outlet for all that was going on. To escape war, creative geniuses rose up and became the icons of Classical Greece.
Before the Greek Dark Age
Around 1200 B.C., the Dark Age of Greece covered the once thriving Mycenaean civilization making them just a memory in songs and stories. This period, that lasted over three hundred years and left virtually no records behind, left us in the dark as to what happened during these years.
Bronze Age or Dark Age - The Iliad?
Homer, in The Iliad, was clearly writing of a time prior to the Dark Ages. It was during the Mycenaean period that sea travel was huge and the areas were growing. The Dark Ages were a time where much of the advances died or decreased compared to the former glory of the Bronze Age.
Causes of Greco-Persian Wars
The catalyst for the first Persian war stemmed from a revolt by Greek Ionians. It was instigated by Aristagoras, economic burdens, and a feeling of being treated unfairly by the Empire.
Continuity Through the Greek Dark Ages
The Dark Ages of Greece is a deceptive phrase as many things developed in this period. What came out of this period would later explode and be described as the driving force of what would become the Archaic and Classical Greece.
Could the Peloponnesian War Have Been Avoided?
The Peloponnesian war could only have been avoided if each side was willing to make large compromises which would be completely against their personality or culture. Though there was tension between the two states, it ultimately started outside the two city-states in Corcyra.
Greek Versus Persian Military
When the Persian and Greek armies clashed for the very first time, the strengths of each side pushed the enemy forward while the weaknesses pulled them back. Each individual strength and weakness would become very important in determining the outcome of each battle.
Hadrianís Wall in Britain, along with the Limes Germanica in southern Germany, was built by the Romans around 122 A.D. Both walls were used as boundary lines to separate the Empire from the barbarians that could not be tamed.
Heinrich Schliemann and His Discoveries
Luck can play a part in history. Heinrich Schliemann proved that when he discovered the site of ancient Troy. Though scholars did not believe in Homer's Troy, Heinrich showed the world that great works of literature can have an historical basis.
Leading Up to the Roman Revolution
Prior to 133, Rome had expanded through various conquests. These conquests brought in additional lands, people, and the need for more soldiers. It was also during this time that the interest of the state was being usurped by self-interest within the oligarchy.
Mycenae is one of those places that causes the imagination to fly in so many directions. Anyone who is familiar with ancient history will be familiar Mycenae. This was the center of the Mycenaean civilization that was the Golden Age of Greeceís Bronze Age.
Pompeii, Italy Pictures [offsite link]
Beautiful pictures of Pompeii, Italy taken during a tour of the lost city.
Roman Military and the Marian Reforms
In the early Republican Army, the military service allowed only those with a set level of property possession to participate in campaigns. This limited the number of men who could serve regardless of age and health. When this rule was first implemented, it served a two prong purpose.
Rome and Masada
The fall of Rome has been widely discussed and written on. Various reasons can be given, including the introduction of Christianity into the Empire, and the internal strife that resulted in many civil wars.
Rome's Failure with Masada
The main victory of taking over Jerusalem was what Vaspasian marched into Rome in celebration of. He and his son had let the world know that no one could revolt against Rome. Masada was a minor nuisance in the final cleanup.
The Causes of the Peloponnesian War
The reasons behind the Peloponnesian War were both political and a failure of diplomacy.
The Code of Hammurabi
Our legal system can trace much of its roots to a set of laws that were written more than 1700 years before Christ.
The Collapse and Ressurection of the Roman Empire
The collapse of the Roman Empire during the third century began with Maximinius Thrax.
The Evolution of Athenian Democracy
The democracy of Athens did not occur overnight but developed through many types of government. The democracy that we know today traveled from monarchy through oligarchy, through tyrants and eventually made its way to the classical form of Athenian democracy.
The Gracchi Murders
Rome was expanding and taking over the Mediterranean basin. With these conquests, new problems arose for the Roman Republic. As the leaders tried to adjust to the expanded Republic, they also found themselves faced with problems rising up within the government.
The Greek Heroic Age
The Greek Heroic Age was the time when legends were made. The tales we use in describing Ancient Greece mainly come from this period. The heart of Greek tradition hails from its great Heroic Period and the glorious civilization of the Mycenae.
The Influences of the Persian Empire
The Persian Empire was mighty and powerful, yet few can remember much about them as the Romans and Greeks dominate Western Civilization history conversations. But their influence more than likely effects your everyday life.
The Mediterranean Triad
Food sources are vital to any civilization. It was the Mediterranean triad that helped Greece make its mark in the ancient world.
Where did the Greek civilization come from? The great civilization that gave us Aristotle and democracy had to come from somewhere. Where was the birthplace of Greece? We can look to the island of Crete and the Minoans for the beginnings of the great Greek civilization.
The Necessity of the Greek Dark Age
The Mycenaean civilization would not have brought about all that we obtained from Classical Greece despite their achievements. It was their achievements that were the very obstacles that needed to be removed for the rise of Archaic and Classic Greece to occur.
The Not So Dark Age of Greece
With the end of the Mycenaean civilization, Greece slid into a cultural abyss.
The Reality of the Trojan War
Historical events become legends and myths as time marches on. They are full of events and characters that are unrealistic. Was there really a Robin Hood? Though history is not concrete about this one, who's to say there was not a man who became the basis for this larger-than-life figure?
The Siege of Masada
Overall, the way Rome administered Judaea did not change much despite the rotation of emperors. Many of the changes occurred on the Jewish side as there were rumors rippling through the land of a Messiah to save them from foreign rule.
The Spread of the Greek Culture
The spread of Greek culture was done by many people including conquering civilizations.
The Weakening of Rome by Marius and Sulla
The mention of Rome brings about images of armies, government, and strength. History shows that it was these very three things that not only made the Republic but also weakened it. Various men played roles in this action including that of Marius and Sulla.
Understanding the Success of Hannibal
Why was Hannibal so successful against Rome yet could not win?
What Classical Greece Has Given Us
Classical Greece has given us much in the way of culture. From education, to government, to architecture, Greece is still evident in our society.
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