g Text Version
Beauty & Self
Books & Music
Food & Wine
Health & Fitness
Hobbies & Crafts
Home & Garden
News & Politics
Religion & Spirituality
Travel & Culture
TV & Movies

Bored? Games!
Take a Quiz
Rate My Photo

Natural Living
Folklore and Mythology
Distance Learning

All times in EST

Clairvoyance: 08:00 PM

Full Schedule
g Biology Site

BellaOnline's Biology Editor


Human Anatomical Systems

Guest Author - Deborah Watson-Novacek

The number of human anatomical features is quite extensive. This detailed list of human anatomical features is adapted from the Table of Contents of the public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy and is meant to be a reference resource.

The major systems of the human body are:

- Cardiovascular system: the blood circulation with heart, arteries and veins

- Digestive system: processing food with mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestines.

- Endocrine system: communicating within the body using hormones

- Urinary system: eliminating wastes from the body

- Immune system: defending against disease-causing agents (includes the Lymphatic system)

- Integumentary system: skin, hair and nails

- Muscular system: moving the body with muscles

- Nervous system: collecting, transferring and processing information with brain and nerves

- Reproductive system: the reproductive organs

- Respiratory system: the lungs and the trachea


Embryology - The Study of an Embryo from Fertilization to Fetus

- The cell

- The ovum

- The spermatozoon

- Fertilization of the ovum

- Segmentation of the fertilized ovum

- The neural groove and neural tube

- The notochord

- The primitive segments

- Separation of the embryo

- The yolk-sac

- Development of the fetal membranes and placenta

- The branchial region

- Development of the body cavities

- The form of the embryo at different stages of its growth

Osteology - The Study of Bones

- Bone

-- The vertebral column
--- General characteristics of a vertebra
---- The cervical vertebrae
---- The thoracic vertebrae
---- The lumbar vertebrae
---- The sacral vertebrae
---- The coccygeal vertebrae
---- The vertebral column as a whole

-- The thorax
--- The sternum
--- The ribs
--- The costal cartilages

-- The skull
--- The cranial bones
---- The occipital bone
---- The parietal bone
---- The frontal bone
---- The temporal bone
---- The sphenoid bone
---- The ethmoid bone

--- The facial bones
----- The nasal bones
----- The maxillae (upper jaw)
----- The lacrimal bone
----- The zygomatic bone
----- The palatine bone
----- The inferior nasal concha
----- The vomer
----- The mandible (lower jaw)
----- The hyoid bone

--- The exterior of the skull

--- The interior of the skull

- The extremities

-- The bones of the upper extremity
--- The clavicle
--- The scapula
--- The humerus
--- The ulna
--- The radius

-- The hand
--- The carpus
--- The metacarpus
--- The phalanges of the hand

-- The bones of the lower extremity
--- The hip bone
--- The pelvis
--- The femur
--- The patella
--- The tibia
--- The fibula

-- The foot
---- The tarsus
---- The metatarsus
---- The phalanges of the foot
---- The sesamoid bones

Syndesmology - The Study of Ligaments

- Development of the joints

- Classification of joints

- The kind of movement admitted in joints

- Articulations of the trunk
-- Articulations of the vertebral column
-- Articulation of the atlas with the epistropheus or axis
-- Articulations of the vertebral column with the cranium
-- Articulation of the mandible
-- Costovertebral articulations
-- Sternocostal articulations
-- Articulation of the manubrium and body of the sternum
-- Articulation of the vertebral column with the pelvis
-- Articulations of the pelvis

- Articulations of the upper extremity
-- Sternoclavicular articulation
-- Acromioclavicular articulation
-- Humeral articulation or shoulder-joint
-- Elbow-joint
-- Radioulnar articulation
-- Radiocarpal articulation or wrist-joint
-- Intercarpal articulations
-- Carpometacarpal articulations
-- Intermetacarpal articulations
-- Metacarpophalangeal articulations
-- Articulations of the digits

- Articulations of the lower extremity
-- Coxal articulation or hip-joint
-- The knee-joint
-- Articulations between the tibia and fibula
-- Talocrural articulation or ankle-joint
-- Intertarsal articulations
-- Tarsometatarsal articulations
-- Intermetatarsal articulations
-- Metatarsophalangeal articulations
-- Articulations of the digits
-- Arches of the foot

Myology - The Study of Muscles

- Mechanics of muscle

- Development of the muscles

- Tendons, aponeuroses, and fasciae

- The fasciae and muscles of the head.
-- The muscles of the scalp
-- The muscles of the eyelid
-- The muscles of the nose
-- The muscles of the mouth
-- The muscles of mastication

- The fasciae and muscles of the anterolateral region of the neck
-- The superficial cervical muscle
-- The lateral cervical muscles
-- The supra- and infrahyoid muscles
-- The anterior vertebral muscles
-- The lateral vertebral muscles

- The fasciae and muscles of the trunk
-- The deep muscles of the back
-- The suboccipital muscles
-- The muscles of the thorax
-- The muscles and fasciae of the abdomen
-- The muscles and fasciae of the pelvis
-- The muscles and fasciae of the perineum

-The fascia and muscles of the upper extremity
-- The muscles connecting the upper extremity to the vertebral column
-- The muscles connecting the upper extremity to the anterior and lateral thoracic walls
-- The muscles and fasciae of the shoulder
-- The muscles and fasciae of the arm
-- The muscles and fasciae of the forearm
-- The muscles and fasciae of the hand

- The muscles and fasciae of the lower extremity.
-- The muscles and fasciae of the iliac region
-- The muscles and fasciae of the thigh
-- The muscles and fasciae of the leg
-- The fasciae around the ankle
-- The muscles and fasciae of the foot

Angiology - The Study of the Circulatory & Lymphatic Systems

- The blood

- Development of the vascular system

- The thoracic cavity
-- The pericardium
-- The heart
-- Peculiarities in the vascular system in the fetus

The Arteries

- The aorta

- The arteries of the head and neck
-- The common carotid artery
--- Relations
--- The external carotid artery
--- The triangles of the neck
--- The internal carotid artery

-- The arteries of the brain

- The arteries of the upper extremity

-- The subclavian artery

-- The axilla
--- The axillary artery
--- The brachial artery
--- The radial artery
--- The ulnar artery

- The arteries of the trunk

-- The descending aorta
--- The thoracic aorta
--- The abdominal aorta

-- The common iliac arteries
--- The hypogastric artery
--- The external iliac artery

- The arteries of the lower extremity

-- The femoral artery
-- The popliteal fossa
-- The popliteal artery
-- The anterior tibial artery
-- The arteria dorsalis pedis
-- The posterior tibial artery

The Veins

- The pulmonary veins

- The systemic veins

-- The veins of the heart

-- The veins of the head and neck
--- The veins of the exterior of the head and face
--- The veins of the neck
--- The diploic veins
--- The veins of the brain
--- The sinuses of the dura mater. ophthalmic veins and emissary veins
--- The veins of the upper extremity and thorax
--- The veins of the lower extremity, abdomen, and pelvis

- The portal system of veins

The Lymphatic System

- The thoractic duct

- The lymphatics of the head, face, and neck

- The lymphatics of the upper extremity

- The lymphatics of the lower extremity

- The lymphatics of the abdomen and pelvis

- The lymphatic vessels of the thorax

Neurology - The Scientific Study of the Nervous System

- Structure of the nervous system

- Development of the nervous system

- The spinal cord or medulla spinalis

- The brain or encephalon
-- The hindbrain or rhombencephalon
-- The midbrain or mesencephalon
-- The forebrain or prosencephalon
-- Composition and central connections of the spinal nerves
-- Pathways from the brain to the spinal cord
-- The meninges of the brain and medulla spinalis
-- The cerebrospinal fluid

- The cranial nerves
-- The olfactory nerves
-- The optic nerve
-- The oculomotor nerve
-- The trochlear nerve
-- The trigeminal nerve
-- The abducent nerve
-- The facial nerve
-- The vestibulocochlear nerve
-- The glossopharyngeal nerve
-- The vagus nerve
-- The accessory nerve
-- The hypoglossal nerve

- The spinal nerves
-- The posterior divisions
-- The anterior divisions
-- The thoracic nerves
-- The lumbosacral plexus
-- The sacral and coccygeal nerves

- The sympathetic nerves
-- The cephalic portion of the sympathetic system
-- The cervical portion of the sympathetic system
-- The thoracic portion of the sympathetic system
-- The abdominal portion of the sympathetic system
-- The pelvic portion of the sympathetic system
-- The great plexuses of the sympathetic system

The Organs of the Senses and the Common Integument

- The peripheral organs of the special senses

-- The organs of taste

-- The organ of smell

-- The organ of sight
--- The tunics of the eye
--- The refracting media
--- The accessory organs of the eye

-- The organ of hearing
--- The external ear
--- The middle ear or tympanic cavity
--- The auditory ossicles
--- The internal ear or labyrinth

-- Peripheral terminations of nerves of general sensations

-The common integument

Splanchnology - The Scientific Study of the Viscera

- The respiratory apparatus
-- The larynx
-- The trachea and bronchi
-- The pleurae
-- The mediastinum
-- The lungs

- The digestive apparatus
-- The mouth
-- The fauces
-- The pharynx
-- The esophagus
-- The abdomen
-- The stomach
-- The small intestine
-- The large intestine
-- The liver
-- The pancreas

- The urogenital apparatus
-- Development of the urinary and generative organs
--- The urinary organs
---- The kidneys
---- The ureters
---- The urinary bladder
---- The male urethra
---- The female urethra

--- The male genital organs
--- The female genital organs

- The ductless glands
-- The thyroid gland
-- The parathyroid glands
-- The thymus
-- The hypophysis cerebri
-- The pineal body
-- The chromaphil and cortical systems
-- The spleen

Surface Anatomy and Surface Markings

- Surface anatomy of the head and neck

- Surface markings of special regions of the head and neck

- Surface anatomy of the back
-- The lozenges of Aphrodite

- Surface markings of the back

- Surface anatomy of the thorax

- Surface markings of the thorax

- Surface anatomy of the abdomen

- Surface markings of the abdomen

- Surface anatomy of the perineum

- Surface markings of the perineum

- Surface anatomy of the upper extremity

- Surface markings of the upper extremity

- Surface anatomy of the lower extremity

- Surface markings of the lower extremity


This site needs an editor - click to learn more!

Add Human+Anatomical+Systems to Twitter Add Human+Anatomical+Systems to Facebook Add Human+Anatomical+Systems to MySpace Add Human+Anatomical+Systems to Digg Human+Anatomical+Systems Add Human+Anatomical+Systems to Yahoo My Web Add Human+Anatomical+Systems to Google Bookmarks Add Human+Anatomical+Systems to Stumbleupon Add Human+Anatomical+Systems to Reddit

Anatomy - Introduction & Early History
Anatomy - Microscopic Anatomy & Modern History
Related Articles
Editor's Picks Articles
Top Ten Articles
Previous Features
Site Map

For FREE email updates, subscribe to the Biology Newsletter

Past Issues

Printer Friendly
tell friend
Tell a Friend
Email Editor

Content copyright © 2018 by Deborah Watson-Novacek. All rights reserved.
This content was written by Deborah Watson-Novacek. If you wish to use this content in any manner, you need written permission. Contact BellaOnline Administration for details.


g features
Algae Blooms

Species Spotlight - Monarch Butterfly


Archives | Site Map


Past Issues

Note: BellaOnline uses cookies to help provide a consistent user experience. Our advertisers may use cookies to help customize ads. Please contact us with any question about our cookie use.

Summertime Foods
Corn on the Cob
Burgers on the Grill
Apple Pie


| About BellaOnline | Privacy Policy | Advertising | Become an Editor |
Website copyright © 2018 Minerva WebWorks LLC. All rights reserved.

BellaOnline Editor