Guest Author - Rebecca Graf
Especially after the Black Death, astrology became a major factor in the field of medicine. Those that liked rational answers saw the mathematical aspects of astrology as a solid foundation for their approach to medicine. The zodiac controlled the various parts of the body and helped dictate when treatments should be administered and how. The mass death of the Black Death and the seemingly unfathomable reason behind it led those of the Middle Ages to look for something solid that dictated every aspect of health. Unlike the Church that gave broad answers and asked only for faith, prayers, and money, astrology was something that was based on the heavens where God lived and of what He created. By following the direction of the stars and planets, many felt that they were following God’s orders. Though God was ultimately the director of astrological beliefs, the Church saw it as worship and reliance on objects that were not God.
What the Church did not fully understand was that behind all the practices of medicine including the charms, herbs, and astrology was a “real and practical knowledge of the art of medicine.” Charms accompanied other medicinal practices and rarely were used alone to heal. Herbs were based on the science of botany though this was not as obvious to many of the time. The science was there but misunderstood by many in power. Science was encouraged when it supported the doctrines and traditions of the Church, but was considered heretical or even satanic when it undermined or contradicted the Church. Despite the periodic oppression by the Church, the science of medicine did advance as more exposure to the East. It was the discovery of the knowledge the Arabs possessed that helped to push Europe’s medieval practice of medicine. Medicine was not completely absent during the Middle Ages; it was just hampered. Many knew that there was more to medicine than astrology, charms, and incantations. They saw the need to “know the causes of sickness and health.”
Superstitions can be found in Church writings, but too often the practice of witchcraft in conjunction with medicine caused many to shy away from anything that appeared superstitious. The practice of using the herbs was both encouraged and discouraged by the Church. When the administration of herbs was used with incantations, the Church saw this as non-Christian acts which of course was discouraged to the extent of being examined by the Inquisition. Yet, the superstition of looking to the saints for cures was the Church ordained medicinal practice.
Science, superstition, and spirituality were major components of the medicine practiced during the Middle Ages. The very aspect of each of these parts inevitably brought the Church into the picture. Methods of practicing medicine were feared by the Church when it could hurt it or encouraged by the Church when it could enhance its power and prestige.
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