Guest Author - Rebecca Graf
The Indians gave a variety of responses to the English colonization. It ranged from tolerance and allies to all out war. The manner of colonization and the impact felt by the Indians determined most of the responses that were received.
Initially, the Chesapeake Indians led by Powhatan treated the colonists with curiosity. They watched the newcomers and tried to find their weakness. The truth was that the colonists were looking to subvert the Indians and turn them into English slaves. When the English pushed to take the native’s food, they were met with violence. In 1622, Chief Opechancanough attacked tobacco plantations and killing about thirty percent of the people who lived in Virginia. Conflict continued in varying degrees as the settlers pushed further into Indian territory and demanded more from the Indians than they could give. In 1675, the settlers killed the chiefs of the Susquehannock who were petitioning for peace. The response was shock and blood. (1)
The New England natives were not ones to initiate violence until the settlers heard of the uprisings in the Chesapeake area and decided to be proactive. The result was the Pequot War in 1636. The colonists brought in other tribes to help defeat the Pequot who refused to give up their children as hostages because some members of the tribe were suspected of killing a trader. The result was a bloodbath. The lack of unity among the New England tribes played into the hands of the colonists who used the tribes to clear the land for them in the way of population. Everything escalated in King Philip’s War in 1675 when settlers hung captured natives as punishment for a crime. The Wampanoag Indians attacked in revenge. (2)
There was much confusion between the various cultures that can be seen quite plainly in the Middle Colonies. When the settlers demanded tribute from the natives, war was not usually far behind. In 1639, Kieft demanded tribute which led the natives to kill two colonists. The result was the absolute slaughter of the tribe by the settlers. Revenge was then taken up by the remaining natives. It continued with the deaths of many including that of Anne Hutchinson. (3) This was true in those colonies where the settlers demanded more from the Indians and dealt with them harshly. Colonies such as Pennsylvania worked with the natives and developed a peaceful relationship with the Indians which allowed the colony to prosper more than many of the others did during that time. (4)
The southern colonies began by using the Indians as slave catchers. Yet, the southern colonies kept growing and the economic benefits that existed between the settlers and the natives fell about in 1711 when the Tuscarora tribe brought out destruction on many plantations. Back and forth the relationships went with the Indians getting the short end as the settlers began to put the screws to them. (5)
In the end, the reaction was same. The settlers began to reach out further and demanded more than the natives could understand or give. The results were inevitable with the natives taking lives and initiating war with other nearby tribes. They were not to give up the land that they lived on for generations to the greed of the European.
(1) Alan Taylor, American Colonies: The Settling of North America, (New York: Penguin, 2001), 125-152.
(2) Ibid, 188-201.
(3) Ibid, 248-255.
(4) Ibid, 267-269.
(5) Ibid, 230-235.